Jinan (Chinese: 济南; alternately romanized as Tsinan)[a] is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China. With a population of was 6.8 million as of the 2010 census, it is the second-largest city in Shandong after Qingdao. The area of present-day Jinan has played an important role in the history of the region from the earliest beginnings of civilization and has evolved into a major national administrative, economic, and transportation hub. The city has held sub-provincial administrative status since 1994. Jinan is often called the "Spring City" for its famous 72 artesian springs.
Baotu Spring Park
The Baotu Spring (Chinese: 趵突泉; pinyin: Bàotū Quán, sometimes translated as "Jet Spring" or "Spurting Spring") is a culturally significant artesian karst spring located in the city of Jinan, Shandong, China. It is mentioned in the Spring and Autumn Annals, one of the Five Classics of Chinese literature, and was declared the "Number One Spring under the Heaven" (Chinese: 天下第一泉; pinyin: Tiān Xià Dì Yī Quán) by the Qianlong Emperor in the Qing dynasty.
The Baotu Spring is the most renowned among the more than 70 named artesian springs in the downtown area of the city of Jinan. The water of all these springs originates from an Ordovician karst aquifer under the city. As the terrain around Jinan slopes from the south down to the north, the recharge area for the aquifer is located in the mountainous area to the south of the city. The recharge area of the springs covers 1,500 square kilometres, out of which 550 km2 provide direct recharge and 950 km2 indirect recharge.
Altogether, the springs fed by the aquifer have a discharge of about 300,000-350,000 cubic metres per day. Since the 1970s, the springs have stopped flowing several times because too much water has been taken out from the aquifer for human consumption (more than 270,000 m3 per day in the 1970s).
The Baotu Spring is part of a cluster of about 20 named springs.
Water age estimates suggest that its water originates from shallow circulation.
The spring pool of the Baotu Spring is fed by an underwater limestone water through three outlets; the volume of the water coming out of the spring can reach peak values up to 1.6 cubic metres per second.
The water jets from the spring are said to have reached
highs up to 26 metres. The water temperature remains
constant of 18 degree Celsius through the entire year.
Daming Lake Scenic Area
Daming Lake Scenic Area is located in the northeast of downtown Jinan, the northern part of the Old Town. It is a park that integrates bodies of water, garden landscape, and ancient architecture. Daming Lake is in the center of the park. Or one could say that the park is built along the lake. Daming Lake is a natural lake. The water source comes from many springs in the city. It has a long history, dating back to the Northern Wei Dynasty. In the park, you can visit the Lao She Memorial. In summer, you can enjoy the lotus blossoms in the garden.